Biological desulfurization, also known as biological desulfurization (BDS for short), is a new technology that uses aerobic and anaerobic bacteria to remove bound sulfur from petroleum sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds at room temperature and pressure. As early as 1948, the United States had a patent for biological desulfurization, but there has been no successful example of removing hydrocarbon sulfides. The main reason is that it can not effectively control the role of bacteria. Since then, there have been several successful "microbial desulfurization" reports, but they have little application value. The reason is that although microorganisms remove the sulfur from the oil, they also consume a lot of carbon in the oil and reduce a lot of heat release in the oil. Scientists have been conducting in-depth research on it until 1998, when researchers of the Institute of GasTechnology (IGT) in the United States successfully isolated two special strains, which can selectively remove sulfur from dibenzothiophene, and industrial models for removing heterocyclic sulfur molecules in oil products have been produced. In 1992, two patents (5002888 and 5104801) were applied for in the United States respectively. Energybiosystemscorp (EBC) obtained the right to use these two strains. On this basis, the company not only successfully produced and regenerated the biological desulfurization catalyst, but also extended the service life of the catalyst while reducing the production cost of the catalyst. In addition, the company also isolated the bacteria of meihongcoccus, which can break the C-S bond and achieve the purpose of not losing oil hydrocarbons in the desulfurization process. Now, EBC has become a company with extensive research on biological desulfurization technology in the world. In addition, the Institute of life engineering industrial technology of the Japan Institute of industrial technology and the activation center of the petroleum industry jointly developed a new strain of diesel desulfurization. This strain can simultaneously remove dibenzothiophene and sulfur in benzothiophene in diesel oil, and the sulfur in these two sulfides is difficult to remove by other methods.
The process is based on the oxidation reaction between aerobic bacteria produced in nature and organic sulfides. Selective oxidation breaks the C-S bond, oxidizes the sulfur atom into sulfate or sulfite and transfers it to the aqueous phase, while the skeleton structure of DBT oxidizes into hydroxybiphenyl and remains in the oil phase, so as to achieve the purpose of removing sulfides. BDS technology has been developed for decades since its emergence, and is still in the development and research stage so far. Because BDS technology has many advantages, it can be organically combined with existing HDS devices, which can not only greatly reduce the production cost, but also have stronger economic competitiveness than HDS due to the high added value of organic sulfur products. At the same time, BDS can also be combined with catalytic adsorption desulfurization, which is an effective method to achieve deep desulfurization of fuel oil. Therefore, BDS technology has broad application prospects, and it is expected that industrialized devices will appear around 2010.
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